original development tree for Linux kernel GTP module; now long in mainline.
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The SGI XFS Filesystem
======================
XFS is a high performance journaling filesystem which originated
on the SGI IRIX platform. It is completely multi-threaded, can
support large files and large filesystems, extended attributes,
variable block sizes, is extent based, and makes extensive use of
Btrees (directories, extents, free space) to aid both performance
and scalability.
Refer to the documentation at http://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/
for further details. This implementation is on-disk compatible
with the IRIX version of XFS.
Mount Options
=============
When mounting an XFS filesystem, the following options are accepted.
For boolean mount options, the names with the (*) suffix is the
default behaviour.
allocsize=size
Sets the buffered I/O end-of-file preallocation size when
doing delayed allocation writeout (default size is 64KiB).
Valid values for this option are page size (typically 4KiB)
through to 1GiB, inclusive, in power-of-2 increments.
The default behaviour is for dynamic end-of-file
preallocation size, which uses a set of heuristics to
optimise the preallocation size based on the current
allocation patterns within the file and the access patterns
to the file. Specifying a fixed allocsize value turns off
the dynamic behaviour.
attr2
noattr2
The options enable/disable an "opportunistic" improvement to
be made in the way inline extended attributes are stored
on-disk. When the new form is used for the first time when
attr2 is selected (either when setting or removing extended
attributes) the on-disk superblock feature bit field will be
updated to reflect this format being in use.
The default behaviour is determined by the on-disk feature
bit indicating that attr2 behaviour is active. If either
mount option it set, then that becomes the new default used
by the filesystem.
CRC enabled filesystems always use the attr2 format, and so
will reject the noattr2 mount option if it is set.
barrier (*)
nobarrier
Enables/disables the use of block layer write barriers for
writes into the journal and for data integrity operations.
This allows for drive level write caching to be enabled, for
devices that support write barriers.
discard
nodiscard (*)
Enable/disable the issuing of commands to let the block
device reclaim space freed by the filesystem. This is
useful for SSD devices, thinly provisioned LUNs and virtual
machine images, but may have a performance impact.
Note: It is currently recommended that you use the fstrim
application to discard unused blocks rather than the discard
mount option because the performance impact of this option
is quite severe.
grpid/bsdgroups
nogrpid/sysvgroups (*)
These options define what group ID a newly created file
gets. When grpid is set, it takes the group ID of the
directory in which it is created; otherwise it takes the
fsgid of the current process, unless the directory has the
setgid bit set, in which case it takes the gid from the
parent directory, and also gets the setgid bit set if it is
a directory itself.
filestreams
Make the data allocator use the filestreams allocation mode
across the entire filesystem rather than just on directories
configured to use it.
ikeep
noikeep (*)
When ikeep is specified, XFS does not delete empty inode
clusters and keeps them around on disk. When noikeep is
specified, empty inode clusters are returned to the free
space pool.
inode32
inode64 (*)
When inode32 is specified, it indicates that XFS limits
inode creation to locations which will not result in inode
numbers with more than 32 bits of significance.
When inode64 is specified, it indicates that XFS is allowed
to create inodes at any location in the filesystem,
including those which will result in inode numbers occupying
more than 32 bits of significance.
inode32 is provided for backwards compatibility with older
systems and applications, since 64 bits inode numbers might
cause problems for some applications that cannot handle
large inode numbers. If applications are in use which do
not handle inode numbers bigger than 32 bits, the inode32
option should be specified.
largeio
nolargeio (*)
If "nolargeio" is specified, the optimal I/O reported in
st_blksize by stat(2) will be as small as possible to allow
user applications to avoid inefficient read/modify/write
I/O. This is typically the page size of the machine, as
this is the granularity of the page cache.
If "largeio" specified, a filesystem that was created with a
"swidth" specified will return the "swidth" value (in bytes)
in st_blksize. If the filesystem does not have a "swidth"
specified but does specify an "allocsize" then "allocsize"
(in bytes) will be returned instead. Otherwise the behaviour
is the same as if "nolargeio" was specified.
logbufs=value
Set the number of in-memory log buffers. Valid numbers
range from 2-8 inclusive.
The default value is 8 buffers.
If the memory cost of 8 log buffers is too high on small
systems, then it may be reduced at some cost to performance
on metadata intensive workloads. The logbsize option below
controls the size of each buffer and so is also relevent to
this case.
logbsize=value
Set the size of each in-memory log buffer. The size may be
specified in bytes, or in kilobytes with a "k" suffix.
Valid sizes for version 1 and version 2 logs are 16384 (16k)
and 32768 (32k). Valid sizes for version 2 logs also
include 65536 (64k), 131072 (128k) and 262144 (256k). The
logbsize must be an integer multiple of the log
stripe unit configured at mkfs time.
The default value for for version 1 logs is 32768, while the
default value for version 2 logs is MAX(32768, log_sunit).
logdev=device and rtdev=device
Use an external log (metadata journal) and/or real-time device.
An XFS filesystem has up to three parts: a data section, a log
section, and a real-time section. The real-time section is
optional, and the log section can be separate from the data
section or contained within it.
noalign
Data allocations will not be aligned at stripe unit
boundaries. This is only relevant to filesystems created
with non-zero data alignment parameters (sunit, swidth) by
mkfs.
norecovery
The filesystem will be mounted without running log recovery.
If the filesystem was not cleanly unmounted, it is likely to
be inconsistent when mounted in "norecovery" mode.
Some files or directories may not be accessible because of this.
Filesystems mounted "norecovery" must be mounted read-only or
the mount will fail.
nouuid
Don't check for double mounted file systems using the file
system uuid. This is useful to mount LVM snapshot volumes,
and often used in combination with "norecovery" for mounting
read-only snapshots.
noquota
Forcibly turns off all quota accounting and enforcement
within the filesystem.
uquota/usrquota/uqnoenforce/quota
User disk quota accounting enabled, and limits (optionally)
enforced. Refer to xfs_quota(8) for further details.
gquota/grpquota/gqnoenforce
Group disk quota accounting enabled and limits (optionally)
enforced. Refer to xfs_quota(8) for further details.
pquota/prjquota/pqnoenforce
Project disk quota accounting enabled and limits (optionally)
enforced. Refer to xfs_quota(8) for further details.
sunit=value and swidth=value
Used to specify the stripe unit and width for a RAID device
or a stripe volume. "value" must be specified in 512-byte
block units. These options are only relevant to filesystems
that were created with non-zero data alignment parameters.
The sunit and swidth parameters specified must be compatible
with the existing filesystem alignment characteristics. In
general, that means the only valid changes to sunit are
increasing it by a power-of-2 multiple. Valid swidth values
are any integer multiple of a valid sunit value.
Typically the only time these mount options are necessary if
after an underlying RAID device has had it's geometry
modified, such as adding a new disk to a RAID5 lun and
reshaping it.
swalloc
Data allocations will be rounded up to stripe width boundaries
when the current end of file is being extended and the file
size is larger than the stripe width size.
wsync
When specified, all filesystem namespace operations are
executed synchronously. This ensures that when the namespace
operation (create, unlink, etc) completes, the change to the
namespace is on stable storage. This is useful in HA setups
where failover must not result in clients seeing
inconsistent namespace presentation during or after a
failover event.
Deprecated Mount Options
========================
delaylog/nodelaylog
Delayed logging is the only logging method that XFS supports
now, so these mount options are now ignored.
Due for removal in 3.12.
ihashsize=value
In memory inode hashes have been removed, so this option has
no function as of August 2007. Option is deprecated.
Due for removal in 3.12.
irixsgid
This behaviour is now controlled by a sysctl, so the mount
option is ignored.
Due for removal in 3.12.
osyncisdsync
osyncisosync
O_SYNC and O_DSYNC are fully supported, so there is no need
for these options any more.
Due for removal in 3.12.
sysctls
=======
The following sysctls are available for the XFS filesystem:
fs.xfs.stats_clear (Min: 0 Default: 0 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" clears accumulated XFS statistics
in /proc/fs/xfs/stat. It then immediately resets to "0".
fs.xfs.xfssyncd_centisecs (Min: 100 Default: 3000 Max: 720000)
The interval at which the filesystem flushes metadata
out to disk and runs internal cache cleanup routines.
fs.xfs.filestream_centisecs (Min: 1 Default: 3000 Max: 360000)
The interval at which the filesystem ages filestreams cache
references and returns timed-out AGs back to the free stream
pool.
fs.xfs.speculative_prealloc_lifetime
(Units: seconds Min: 1 Default: 300 Max: 86400)
The interval at which the background scanning for inodes
with unused speculative preallocation runs. The scan
removes unused preallocation from clean inodes and releases
the unused space back to the free pool.
fs.xfs.error_level (Min: 0 Default: 3 Max: 11)
A volume knob for error reporting when internal errors occur.
This will generate detailed messages & backtraces for filesystem
shutdowns, for example. Current threshold values are:
XFS_ERRLEVEL_OFF: 0
XFS_ERRLEVEL_LOW: 1
XFS_ERRLEVEL_HIGH: 5
fs.xfs.panic_mask (Min: 0 Default: 0 Max: 127)
Causes certain error conditions to call BUG(). Value is a bitmask;
AND together the tags which represent errors which should cause panics:
XFS_NO_PTAG 0
XFS_PTAG_IFLUSH 0x00000001
XFS_PTAG_LOGRES 0x00000002
XFS_PTAG_AILDELETE 0x00000004
XFS_PTAG_ERROR_REPORT 0x00000008
XFS_PTAG_SHUTDOWN_CORRUPT 0x00000010
XFS_PTAG_SHUTDOWN_IOERROR 0x00000020
XFS_PTAG_SHUTDOWN_LOGERROR 0x00000040
This option is intended for debugging only.
fs.xfs.irix_symlink_mode (Min: 0 Default: 0 Max: 1)
Controls whether symlinks are created with mode 0777 (default)
or whether their mode is affected by the umask (irix mode).
fs.xfs.irix_sgid_inherit (Min: 0 Default: 0 Max: 1)
Controls files created in SGID directories.
If the group ID of the new file does not match the effective group
ID or one of the supplementary group IDs of the parent dir, the
ISGID bit is cleared if the irix_sgid_inherit compatibility sysctl
is set.
fs.xfs.inherit_sync (Min: 0 Default: 1 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" will cause the "sync" flag set
by the xfs_io(8) chattr command on a directory to be
inherited by files in that directory.
fs.xfs.inherit_nodump (Min: 0 Default: 1 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" will cause the "nodump" flag set
by the xfs_io(8) chattr command on a directory to be
inherited by files in that directory.
fs.xfs.inherit_noatime (Min: 0 Default: 1 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" will cause the "noatime" flag set
by the xfs_io(8) chattr command on a directory to be
inherited by files in that directory.
fs.xfs.inherit_nosymlinks (Min: 0 Default: 1 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" will cause the "nosymlinks" flag set
by the xfs_io(8) chattr command on a directory to be
inherited by files in that directory.
fs.xfs.inherit_nodefrag (Min: 0 Default: 1 Max: 1)
Setting this to "1" will cause the "nodefrag" flag set
by the xfs_io(8) chattr command on a directory to be
inherited by files in that directory.
fs.xfs.rotorstep (Min: 1 Default: 1 Max: 256)
In "inode32" allocation mode, this option determines how many
files the allocator attempts to allocate in the same allocation
group before moving to the next allocation group. The intent
is to control the rate at which the allocator moves between
allocation groups when allocating extents for new files.
Deprecated Sysctls
==================
fs.xfs.xfsbufd_centisecs (Min: 50 Default: 100 Max: 3000)
Dirty metadata is now tracked by the log subsystem and
flushing is driven by log space and idling demands. The
xfsbufd no longer exists, so this syctl does nothing.
Due for removal in 3.14.
fs.xfs.age_buffer_centisecs (Min: 100 Default: 1500 Max: 720000)
Dirty metadata is now tracked by the log subsystem and
flushing is driven by log space and idling demands. The
xfsbufd no longer exists, so this syctl does nothing.
Due for removal in 3.14.