original development tree for Linux kernel GTP module; now long in mainline.
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Ext4: Uninitialized Block Groups In pass1 of e2fsck, every inode table in the fileystem is scanned and checked, regardless of whether it is in use. This is this the most time consuming part of the filesystem check. The unintialized block group feature can greatly reduce e2fsck time by eliminating checking of uninitialized inodes. With this feature, there is a a high water mark of used inodes for each block group. Block and inode bitmaps can be uninitialized on disk via a flag in the group descriptor to avoid reading or scanning them at e2fsck time. A checksum of each group descriptor is used to ensure that corruption in the group descriptor's bit flags does not cause incorrect operation. The feature is enabled through a mkfs option mke2fs /dev/ -O uninit_groups A patch adding support for uninitialized block groups to e2fsprogs tools has been posted to the linux-ext4 mailing list. The patches have been stress tested with fsstress and fsx. In performance tests testing e2fsck time, we have seen that e2fsck time on ext3 grows linearly with the total number of inodes in the filesytem. In ext4 with the uninitialized block groups feature, the e2fsck time is constant, based solely on the number of used inodes rather than the total inode count. Since typical ext4 filesystems only use 1-10% of their inodes, this feature can greatly reduce e2fsck time for users. With performance improvement of 2-20 times, depending on how full the filesystem is. The attached graph shows the major improvements in e2fsck times in filesystems with a large total inode count, but few inodes in use. In each group descriptor if we have EXT4_BG_INODE_UNINIT set in bg_flags: Inode table is not initialized/used in this group. So we can skip the consistency check during fsck. EXT4_BG_BLOCK_UNINIT set in bg_flags: No block in the group is used. So we can skip the block bitmap verification for this group. We also add two new fields to group descriptor as a part of uninitialized group patch. __le16 bg_itable_unused; /* Unused inodes count */ __le16 bg_checksum; /* crc16(sb_uuid+group+desc) */ bg_itable_unused: If we have EXT4_BG_INODE_UNINIT not set in bg_flags then bg_itable_unused will give the offset within the inode table till the inodes are used. This can be used by fsck to skip list of inodes that are marked unused. bg_checksum: Now that we depend on bg_flags and bg_itable_unused to determine the block and inode usage, we need to make sure group descriptor is not corrupt. We add checksum to group descriptor to detect corruption. If the descriptor is found to be corrupt, we mark all the blocks and inodes in the group used. Signed-off-by: Avantika Mathur <mathur@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andreas Dilger <adilger@clusterfs.com> Signed-off-by: Mingming Cao <cmm@us.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
14 years ago
ext4: add support for lazy inode table initialization When the lazy_itable_init extended option is passed to mke2fs, it considerably speeds up filesystem creation because inode tables are not zeroed out. The fact that parts of the inode table are uninitialized is not a problem so long as the block group descriptors, which contain information regarding how much of the inode table has been initialized, has not been corrupted However, if the block group checksums are not valid, e2fsck must scan the entire inode table, and the the old, uninitialized data could potentially cause e2fsck to report false problems. Hence, it is important for the inode tables to be initialized as soon as possble. This commit adds this feature so that mke2fs can safely use the lazy inode table initialization feature to speed up formatting file systems. This is done via a new new kernel thread called ext4lazyinit, which is created on demand and destroyed, when it is no longer needed. There is only one thread for all ext4 filesystems in the system. When the first filesystem with inititable mount option is mounted, ext4lazyinit thread is created, then the filesystem can register its request in the request list. This thread then walks through the list of requests picking up scheduled requests and invoking ext4_init_inode_table(). Next schedule time for the request is computed by multiplying the time it took to zero out last inode table with wait multiplier, which can be set with the (init_itable=n) mount option (default is 10). We are doing this so we do not take the whole I/O bandwidth. When the thread is no longer necessary (request list is empty) it frees the appropriate structures and exits (and can be created later later by another filesystem). We do not disturb regular inode allocations in any way, it just do not care whether the inode table is, or is not zeroed. But when zeroing, we have to skip used inodes, obviously. Also we should prevent new inode allocations from the group, while zeroing is on the way. For that we take write alloc_sem lock in ext4_init_inode_table() and read alloc_sem in the ext4_claim_inode, so when we are unlucky and allocator hits the group which is currently being zeroed, it just has to wait. This can be suppresed using the mount option no_init_itable. Signed-off-by: Lukas Czerner <lczerner@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
11 years ago
filesystem freeze: add error handling of write_super_lockfs/unlockfs Currently, ext3 in mainline Linux doesn't have the freeze feature which suspends write requests. So, we cannot take a backup which keeps the filesystem's consistency with the storage device's features (snapshot and replication) while it is mounted. In many case, a commercial filesystem (e.g. VxFS) has the freeze feature and it would be used to get the consistent backup. If Linux's standard filesystem ext3 has the freeze feature, we can do it without a commercial filesystem. So I have implemented the ioctls of the freeze feature. I think we can take the consistent backup with the following steps. 1. Freeze the filesystem with the freeze ioctl. 2. Separate the replication volume or create the snapshot with the storage device's feature. 3. Unfreeze the filesystem with the unfreeze ioctl. 4. Take the backup from the separated replication volume or the snapshot. This patch: VFS: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that they can return an error. Rename write_super_lockfs and unlockfs of the super block operation freeze_fs and unfreeze_fs to avoid a confusion. ext3, ext4, xfs, gfs2, jfs: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that write_super_lockfs returns an error if needed, and unlockfs always returns 0. reiserfs: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that they always return 0 (success) to keep a current behavior. Signed-off-by: Takashi Sato <t-sato@yk.jp.nec.com> Signed-off-by: Masayuki Hamaguchi <m-hamaguchi@ys.jp.nec.com> Cc: <xfs-masters@oss.sgi.com> Cc: <linux-ext4@vger.kernel.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> Cc: Dave Kleikamp <shaggy@austin.ibm.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Alasdair G Kergon <agk@redhat.com> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago
ext4: add support for lazy inode table initialization When the lazy_itable_init extended option is passed to mke2fs, it considerably speeds up filesystem creation because inode tables are not zeroed out. The fact that parts of the inode table are uninitialized is not a problem so long as the block group descriptors, which contain information regarding how much of the inode table has been initialized, has not been corrupted However, if the block group checksums are not valid, e2fsck must scan the entire inode table, and the the old, uninitialized data could potentially cause e2fsck to report false problems. Hence, it is important for the inode tables to be initialized as soon as possble. This commit adds this feature so that mke2fs can safely use the lazy inode table initialization feature to speed up formatting file systems. This is done via a new new kernel thread called ext4lazyinit, which is created on demand and destroyed, when it is no longer needed. There is only one thread for all ext4 filesystems in the system. When the first filesystem with inititable mount option is mounted, ext4lazyinit thread is created, then the filesystem can register its request in the request list. This thread then walks through the list of requests picking up scheduled requests and invoking ext4_init_inode_table(). Next schedule time for the request is computed by multiplying the time it took to zero out last inode table with wait multiplier, which can be set with the (init_itable=n) mount option (default is 10). We are doing this so we do not take the whole I/O bandwidth. When the thread is no longer necessary (request list is empty) it frees the appropriate structures and exits (and can be created later later by another filesystem). We do not disturb regular inode allocations in any way, it just do not care whether the inode table is, or is not zeroed. But when zeroing, we have to skip used inodes, obviously. Also we should prevent new inode allocations from the group, while zeroing is on the way. For that we take write alloc_sem lock in ext4_init_inode_table() and read alloc_sem in the ext4_claim_inode, so when we are unlucky and allocator hits the group which is currently being zeroed, it just has to wait. This can be suppresed using the mount option no_init_itable. Signed-off-by: Lukas Czerner <lczerner@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
11 years ago
fs: Limit sys_mount to only request filesystem modules. Modify the request_module to prefix the file system type with "fs-" and add aliases to all of the filesystems that can be built as modules to match. A common practice is to build all of the kernel code and leave code that is not commonly needed as modules, with the result that many users are exposed to any bug anywhere in the kernel. Looking for filesystems with a fs- prefix limits the pool of possible modules that can be loaded by mount to just filesystems trivially making things safer with no real cost. Using aliases means user space can control the policy of which filesystem modules are auto-loaded by editing /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf with blacklist and alias directives. Allowing simple, safe, well understood work-arounds to known problematic software. This also addresses a rare but unfortunate problem where the filesystem name is not the same as it's module name and module auto-loading would not work. While writing this patch I saw a handful of such cases. The most significant being autofs that lives in the module autofs4. This is relevant to user namespaces because we can reach the request module in get_fs_type() without having any special permissions, and people get uncomfortable when a user specified string (in this case the filesystem type) goes all of the way to request_module. After having looked at this issue I don't think there is any particular reason to perform any filtering or permission checks beyond making it clear in the module request that we want a filesystem module. The common pattern in the kernel is to call request_module() without regards to the users permissions. In general all a filesystem module does once loaded is call register_filesystem() and go to sleep. Which means there is not much attack surface exposed by loading a filesytem module unless the filesystem is mounted. In a user namespace filesystems are not mounted unless .fs_flags = FS_USERNS_MOUNT, which most filesystems do not set today. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Reported-by: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
9 years ago
fs: Limit sys_mount to only request filesystem modules. Modify the request_module to prefix the file system type with "fs-" and add aliases to all of the filesystems that can be built as modules to match. A common practice is to build all of the kernel code and leave code that is not commonly needed as modules, with the result that many users are exposed to any bug anywhere in the kernel. Looking for filesystems with a fs- prefix limits the pool of possible modules that can be loaded by mount to just filesystems trivially making things safer with no real cost. Using aliases means user space can control the policy of which filesystem modules are auto-loaded by editing /etc/modprobe.d/*.conf with blacklist and alias directives. Allowing simple, safe, well understood work-arounds to known problematic software. This also addresses a rare but unfortunate problem where the filesystem name is not the same as it's module name and module auto-loading would not work. While writing this patch I saw a handful of such cases. The most significant being autofs that lives in the module autofs4. This is relevant to user namespaces because we can reach the request module in get_fs_type() without having any special permissions, and people get uncomfortable when a user specified string (in this case the filesystem type) goes all of the way to request_module. After having looked at this issue I don't think there is any particular reason to perform any filtering or permission checks beyond making it clear in the module request that we want a filesystem module. The common pattern in the kernel is to call request_module() without regards to the users permissions. In general all a filesystem module does once loaded is call register_filesystem() and go to sleep. Which means there is not much attack surface exposed by loading a filesytem module unless the filesystem is mounted. In a user namespace filesystems are not mounted unless .fs_flags = FS_USERNS_MOUNT, which most filesystems do not set today. Acked-by: Serge Hallyn <serge.hallyn@canonical.com> Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> Reported-by: Kees Cook <keescook@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Eric W. Biederman" <ebiederm@xmission.com>
9 years ago
block: make blkdev_get/put() handle exclusive access Over time, block layer has accumulated a set of APIs dealing with bdev open, close, claim and release. * blkdev_get/put() are the primary open and close functions. * bd_claim/release() deal with exclusive open. * open/close_bdev_exclusive() are combination of open and claim and the other way around, respectively. * bd_link/unlink_disk_holder() to create and remove holder/slave symlinks. * open_by_devnum() wraps bdget() + blkdev_get(). The interface is a bit confusing and the decoupling of open and claim makes it impossible to properly guarantee exclusive access as in-kernel open + claim sequence can disturb the existing exclusive open even before the block layer knows the current open if for another exclusive access. Reorganize the interface such that, * blkdev_get() is extended to include exclusive access management. @holder argument is added and, if is @FMODE_EXCL specified, it will gain exclusive access atomically w.r.t. other exclusive accesses. * blkdev_put() is similarly extended. It now takes @mode argument and if @FMODE_EXCL is set, it releases an exclusive access. Also, when the last exclusive claim is released, the holder/slave symlinks are removed automatically. * bd_claim/release() and close_bdev_exclusive() are no longer necessary and either made static or removed. * bd_link_disk_holder() remains the same but bd_unlink_disk_holder() is no longer necessary and removed. * open_bdev_exclusive() becomes a simple wrapper around lookup_bdev() and blkdev_get(). It also has an unexpected extra bdev_read_only() test which probably should be moved into blkdev_get(). * open_by_devnum() is modified to take @holder argument and pass it to blkdev_get(). Most of bdev open/close operations are unified into blkdev_get/put() and most exclusive accesses are tested atomically at the open time (as it should). This cleans up code and removes some, both valid and invalid, but unnecessary all the same, corner cases. open_bdev_exclusive() and open_by_devnum() can use further cleanup - rename to blkdev_get_by_path() and blkdev_get_by_devt() and drop special features. Well, let's leave them for another day. Most conversions are straight-forward. drbd conversion is a bit more involved as there was some reordering, but the logic should stay the same. Signed-off-by: Tejun Heo <tj@kernel.org> Acked-by: Neil Brown <neilb@suse.de> Acked-by: Ryusuke Konishi <konishi.ryusuke@lab.ntt.co.jp> Acked-by: Mike Snitzer <snitzer@redhat.com> Acked-by: Philipp Reisner <philipp.reisner@linbit.com> Cc: Peter Osterlund <petero2@telia.com> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Cc: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andreas Dilger <adilger.kernel@dilger.ca> Cc: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu> Cc: Mark Fasheh <mfasheh@suse.com> Cc: Joel Becker <joel.becker@oracle.com> Cc: Alex Elder <aelder@sgi.com> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@infradead.org> Cc: dm-devel@redhat.com Cc: drbd-dev@lists.linbit.com Cc: Leo Chen <leochen@broadcom.com> Cc: Scott Branden <sbranden@broadcom.com> Cc: Chris Mason <chris.mason@oracle.com> Cc: Steven Whitehouse <swhiteho@redhat.com> Cc: Dave Kleikamp <shaggy@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Joern Engel <joern@logfs.org> Cc: reiserfs-devel@vger.kernel.org Cc: Alexander Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk>
11 years ago
ext4: remove unnecessary superblock dirtying This patch changes the 'ext4_handle_dirty_super()' function which submits the superblock for I/O in the following cases: 1. When creating the first large file on a file system without EXT4_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_LARGE_FILE feature. 2. When re-sizing the file-system. 3. When creating an xattr on a file-system without the EXT4_FEATURE_COMPAT_EXT_ATTR feature. If the file-system has journal enabled, the superblock is written via the journal. We do not modify this path. If the file-system has no journal, this function, falls back to just marking the superblock as dirty using the 's_dirt' superblock flag. This means that it delays the actual superblock I/O submission by 5 seconds (default setting). Namely, the 'sync_supers()' kernel thread will call 'ext4_write_super()' later and will actually submit the superblock for I/O. And this is the behavior this patch modifies: we stop using 's_dirt' and just mark the superblock buffer as dirty right away. Indeed, all 3 cases above are extremely rare and it does not add any value to delay the I/O submission for them. Note: 'ext4_handle_dirty_super()' executes '__ext4_handle_dirty_super()' with 'now = 0'. This patch basically makes the 'now' argument unneeded and it will be deleted in one of the next patches. This patch also removes 's_dirt' condition on the unmount path because we never set it anymore, so we should not test it. Tested using xfstests for both journalled and non-journalled ext4. Signed-off-by: Artem Bityutskiy <artem.bityutskiy@linux.intel.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz>
9 years ago
ext4: handle writeback of inodes which are being freed The following BUG can occur when an inode which is getting freed when it still has dirty pages outstanding, and it gets deleted (in this because it was the target of a rename). In ordered mode, we need to make sure the data pages are written just in case we crash before the rename (or unlink) is committed. If the inode is being freed then when we try to igrab the inode, we end up tripping the BUG_ON at fs/ext4/page-io.c:146. To solve this problem, we need to keep track of the number of io callbacks which are pending, and avoid destroying the inode until they have all been completed. That way we don't have to bump the inode count to keep the inode from being destroyed; an approach which doesn't work because the count could have already been dropped down to zero before the inode writeback has started (at which point we're not allowed to bump the count back up to 1, since it's already started getting freed). Thanks to Dave Chinner for suggesting this approach, which is also used by XFS. kernel BUG at /scratch_space/linux-2.6/fs/ext4/page-io.c:146! Call Trace: [<ffffffff811075b1>] ext4_bio_write_page+0x172/0x307 [<ffffffff811033a7>] mpage_da_submit_io+0x2f9/0x37b [<ffffffff811068d7>] mpage_da_map_and_submit+0x2cc/0x2e2 [<ffffffff811069b3>] mpage_add_bh_to_extent+0xc6/0xd5 [<ffffffff81106c66>] write_cache_pages_da+0x2a4/0x3ac [<ffffffff81107044>] ext4_da_writepages+0x2d6/0x44d [<ffffffff81087910>] do_writepages+0x1c/0x25 [<ffffffff810810a4>] __filemap_fdatawrite_range+0x4b/0x4d [<ffffffff810815f5>] filemap_fdatawrite_range+0xe/0x10 [<ffffffff81122a2e>] jbd2_journal_begin_ordered_truncate+0x7b/0xa2 [<ffffffff8110615d>] ext4_evict_inode+0x57/0x24c [<ffffffff810c14a3>] evict+0x22/0x92 [<ffffffff810c1a3d>] iput+0x212/0x249 [<ffffffff810bdf16>] dentry_iput+0xa1/0xb9 [<ffffffff810bdf6b>] d_kill+0x3d/0x5d [<ffffffff810be613>] dput+0x13a/0x147 [<ffffffff810b990d>] sys_renameat+0x1b5/0x258 [<ffffffff81145f71>] ? _atomic_dec_and_lock+0x2d/0x4c [<ffffffff810b2950>] ? cp_new_stat+0xde/0xea [<ffffffff810b29c1>] ? sys_newlstat+0x2d/0x38 [<ffffffff810b99c6>] sys_rename+0x16/0x18 [<ffffffff81002a2b>] system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b Reported-by: Nick Bowler <nbowler@elliptictech.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu> Tested-by: Nick Bowler <nbowler@elliptictech.com>
11 years ago
ext4: make quota as first class supported feature This patch adds support for quotas as a first class feature in ext4; which is to say, the quota files are stored in hidden inodes as file system metadata, instead of as separate files visible in the file system directory hierarchy. It is based on the proposal at: https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Design_For_1st_Class_Quota_in_Ext4 This patch introduces a new feature - EXT4_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_QUOTA which, when turned on, enables quota accounting at mount time iteself. Also, the quota inodes are stored in two additional superblock fields. Some changes introduced by this patch that should be pointed out are: 1) Two new ext4-superblock fields - s_usr_quota_inum and s_grp_quota_inum for storing the quota inodes in use. 2) Default quota inodes are: inode#3 for tracking userquota and inode#4 for tracking group quota. The superblock fields can be set to use other inodes as well. 3) If the QUOTA feature and corresponding quota inodes are set in superblock, the quota usage tracking is turned on at mount time. On 'quotaon' ioctl, the quota limits enforcement is turned on. 'quotaoff' ioctl turns off only the limits enforcement in this case. 4) When QUOTA feature is in use, the quota mount options 'quota', 'usrquota', 'grpquota' are ignored by the kernel. 5) mke2fs or tune2fs can be used to set the QUOTA feature and initialize quota inodes. The default reserved inodes will not be visible to user as regular files. 6) The quota-tools will need to be modified to support hidden quota files on ext4. E2fsprogs will also include support for creating and fixing quota files. 7) Support is only for the new V2 quota file format. Tested-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Johann Lombardi <johann@whamcloud.com> Signed-off-by: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
9 years ago
ext4: make quota as first class supported feature This patch adds support for quotas as a first class feature in ext4; which is to say, the quota files are stored in hidden inodes as file system metadata, instead of as separate files visible in the file system directory hierarchy. It is based on the proposal at: https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Design_For_1st_Class_Quota_in_Ext4 This patch introduces a new feature - EXT4_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_QUOTA which, when turned on, enables quota accounting at mount time iteself. Also, the quota inodes are stored in two additional superblock fields. Some changes introduced by this patch that should be pointed out are: 1) Two new ext4-superblock fields - s_usr_quota_inum and s_grp_quota_inum for storing the quota inodes in use. 2) Default quota inodes are: inode#3 for tracking userquota and inode#4 for tracking group quota. The superblock fields can be set to use other inodes as well. 3) If the QUOTA feature and corresponding quota inodes are set in superblock, the quota usage tracking is turned on at mount time. On 'quotaon' ioctl, the quota limits enforcement is turned on. 'quotaoff' ioctl turns off only the limits enforcement in this case. 4) When QUOTA feature is in use, the quota mount options 'quota', 'usrquota', 'grpquota' are ignored by the kernel. 5) mke2fs or tune2fs can be used to set the QUOTA feature and initialize quota inodes. The default reserved inodes will not be visible to user as regular files. 6) The quota-tools will need to be modified to support hidden quota files on ext4. E2fsprogs will also include support for creating and fixing quota files. 7) Support is only for the new V2 quota file format. Tested-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Johann Lombardi <johann@whamcloud.com> Signed-off-by: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
9 years ago
ext4: make quota as first class supported feature This patch adds support for quotas as a first class feature in ext4; which is to say, the quota files are stored in hidden inodes as file system metadata, instead of as separate files visible in the file system directory hierarchy. It is based on the proposal at: https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Design_For_1st_Class_Quota_in_Ext4 This patch introduces a new feature - EXT4_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_QUOTA which, when turned on, enables quota accounting at mount time iteself. Also, the quota inodes are stored in two additional superblock fields. Some changes introduced by this patch that should be pointed out are: 1) Two new ext4-superblock fields - s_usr_quota_inum and s_grp_quota_inum for storing the quota inodes in use. 2) Default quota inodes are: inode#3 for tracking userquota and inode#4 for tracking group quota. The superblock fields can be set to use other inodes as well. 3) If the QUOTA feature and corresponding quota inodes are set in superblock, the quota usage tracking is turned on at mount time. On 'quotaon' ioctl, the quota limits enforcement is turned on. 'quotaoff' ioctl turns off only the limits enforcement in this case. 4) When QUOTA feature is in use, the quota mount options 'quota', 'usrquota', 'grpquota' are ignored by the kernel. 5) mke2fs or tune2fs can be used to set the QUOTA feature and initialize quota inodes. The default reserved inodes will not be visible to user as regular files. 6) The quota-tools will need to be modified to support hidden quota files on ext4. E2fsprogs will also include support for creating and fixing quota files. 7) Support is only for the new V2 quota file format. Tested-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Johann Lombardi <johann@whamcloud.com> Signed-off-by: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
9 years ago
ext4: make quota as first class supported feature This patch adds support for quotas as a first class feature in ext4; which is to say, the quota files are stored in hidden inodes as file system metadata, instead of as separate files visible in the file system directory hierarchy. It is based on the proposal at: https://ext4.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/Design_For_1st_Class_Quota_in_Ext4 This patch introduces a new feature - EXT4_FEATURE_RO_COMPAT_QUOTA which, when turned on, enables quota accounting at mount time iteself. Also, the quota inodes are stored in two additional superblock fields. Some changes introduced by this patch that should be pointed out are: 1) Two new ext4-superblock fields - s_usr_quota_inum and s_grp_quota_inum for storing the quota inodes in use. 2) Default quota inodes are: inode#3 for tracking userquota and inode#4 for tracking group quota. The superblock fields can be set to use other inodes as well. 3) If the QUOTA feature and corresponding quota inodes are set in superblock, the quota usage tracking is turned on at mount time. On 'quotaon' ioctl, the quota limits enforcement is turned on. 'quotaoff' ioctl turns off only the limits enforcement in this case. 4) When QUOTA feature is in use, the quota mount options 'quota', 'usrquota', 'grpquota' are ignored by the kernel. 5) mke2fs or tune2fs can be used to set the QUOTA feature and initialize quota inodes. The default reserved inodes will not be visible to user as regular files. 6) The quota-tools will need to be modified to support hidden quota files on ext4. E2fsprogs will also include support for creating and fixing quota files. 7) Support is only for the new V2 quota file format. Tested-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Jan Kara <jack@suse.cz> Reviewed-by: Johann Lombardi <johann@whamcloud.com> Signed-off-by: Aditya Kali <adityakali@google.com> Signed-off-by: "Theodore Ts'o" <tytso@mit.edu>
9 years ago
filesystem freeze: add error handling of write_super_lockfs/unlockfs Currently, ext3 in mainline Linux doesn't have the freeze feature which suspends write requests. So, we cannot take a backup which keeps the filesystem's consistency with the storage device's features (snapshot and replication) while it is mounted. In many case, a commercial filesystem (e.g. VxFS) has the freeze feature and it would be used to get the consistent backup. If Linux's standard filesystem ext3 has the freeze feature, we can do it without a commercial filesystem. So I have implemented the ioctls of the freeze feature. I think we can take the consistent backup with the following steps. 1. Freeze the filesystem with the freeze ioctl. 2. Separate the replication volume or create the snapshot with the storage device's feature. 3. Unfreeze the filesystem with the unfreeze ioctl. 4. Take the backup from the separated replication volume or the snapshot. This patch: VFS: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that they can return an error. Rename write_super_lockfs and unlockfs of the super block operation freeze_fs and unfreeze_fs to avoid a confusion. ext3, ext4, xfs, gfs2, jfs: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that write_super_lockfs returns an error if needed, and unlockfs always returns 0. reiserfs: Changed the type of write_super_lockfs and unlockfs from "void" to "int" so that they always return 0 (success) to keep a current behavior. Signed-off-by: Takashi Sato <t-sato@yk.jp.nec.com> Signed-off-by: Masayuki Hamaguchi <m-hamaguchi@ys.jp.nec.com> Cc: <xfs-masters@oss.sgi.com> Cc: <linux-ext4@vger.kernel.org> Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de> Cc: Dave Kleikamp <shaggy@austin.ibm.com> Cc: Dave Chinner <david@fromorbit.com> Cc: Alasdair G Kergon <agk@redhat.com> Cc: Al Viro <viro@zeniv.linux.org.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
13 years ago